Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) <p>Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) is a <span data-dobid="hdw">biannual</span> peer reviewed journal that publishes book reviews, research articles, thesis/ dissertations, and academic essays. PRSS covers most of Social Sciences disciplines in its publications.</p> Technology Research and Innovation Markaz (TRIM) en-US Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) 2708-0951 <p><strong>Submission declaration</strong></p> <p>Authors have copyright but license exclusive rights in their article to the publisher. Author's submission implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.</p> The Iran National Front and the Struggle for Democracy <div> <p><span lang="EN-US">Kazemzadeh</span>. <span lang="EN-US">M. (2022). The Iran National Front and the Struggle for Democracy<strong>. </strong>Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 359 </span>p<span lang="EN-US">p</span>. <span lang="EN-US">ISBN: 9783110782059</span>.</p> </div> Abdul Ahad Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 4 2 1 3 ANALYSIS OF CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY OF PAKISTAN; HURDLES & LOOPHOLES <p><em>“This research article investigates the challenges and gaps in Pakistan's climate change policy implementation. It summarizes the policy's evolution, aims, and significant efforts. Key problems identified in the study include a lack of political will, insufficient institutional capacity, financial limits, a lack of public awareness, and conflicting development goals. Recommendations are made to address these issues, including strengthening political commitment and governance structures, improving institutional capacity and coordination, allocating adequate financial resources, increasing public awareness through education and outreach, incorporating climate change considerations into sectoral policies, improving monitoring and enforcement mechanisms, and fostering international collaboration. The article also includes case studies from various nations that show particular examples of policy implementation issues and successful approaches. It continues by emphasizing the need of prioritising climate change on Pakistan's policy agenda and urging policymakers and stakeholders to take action in order to successfully address the issues and secure a sustainable future.”</em></p> Munir Ahmad Muhammad Asad Ali Irtaza Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 4 2 4 17 TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP'S EFFECT ON ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR <p class="western" style="line-height: 150%; margin-bottom: 0.28cm;" lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">By encouraging a sense of purpose and values among employees, transformational leadership influences organisational behaviour in one of the most significant ways. The mission and values of the company are outlined by transformative leaders, who motivate their workforce to collaborate for shared success. The growth of its followers is also a priority for transformative leadership. A stronger, more motivated team may be created by transformational leaders who encourage the professional and personal development of their staff. Making expectations too high is another potential flaw in the transformative leadership approach. Along with creativity, inquiry, and experimentation, they promote teamwork and collaboration. Employee engagement and loyalty may rise when leaders make an effort to treat their workers with respect and decency. It has been demonstrated that transformative leadership enhances organisational outcomes like performance, innovation, and staff retention. Overemphasizing the need for leaders to motivate and inspire their team members may result in unreachable goals, which in turn may cause employee dissatisfaction and burnout. Who is accountable for what is yet another potential issue with transformational leadership. Overly concerned with reviving their teams, leaders may neglect other, more basic management tasks like communicating goals and ensuring accountability.</span></span></p> Dato’ Paduka Dr. Yeo Kok Vui Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 4 2 18 37 Editorial Cartoons and Current Political Situation: A Content Analysis of Cartoons <p>Media, especially visual media, can strongly influence society's perceptions, opinions, and views. Editorial cartoons, a notable aspect of newspapers and magazines, not only reflect changes in public opinions but also the discourse surrounding a particular issue. This study evaluated the current political scenario of Pakistan by analyzing daily cartoons published by Dawn and The News International. This study employed a qualitative research approach and the content analysis as a research design. The researcher gathered and analyzed more than 200 editorial cartoons from both dailies. The researcher segmented the cartoons based on the issues they portrayed and found that both dailies lacked sufficient focus on contemporary societal issues, focusing primarily on political parties or the nation's economic situation. The study offered appropriate recommendations for both cartoon creators and readers. This research concludes that The News International depicts the effects of the nation's political landscape on the public, intra-party relations, and constructing a figurehead for blame. In contrast, Dawn's criticisms and depictions align with the dominant social zeitgeist. Both dailies lack in their portrayal of social issues and subject matter outside of political figureheads.</p> <p> </p> Sana Maryum Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 4 2 38 71 Literature On the Use of Fintech and Digital Finance to Increase Financial Inclusion <p style="line-height: 150%; margin-bottom: 0cm;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">This article focuses on the ways that Fintech firms have changed the financial industry. An overview of Fintech businesses, their impact on the banking sector, the challenges they present, and their potential future role in the banking industry are provided in this article. Despite the fact that the first fintech businesses debuted in the late 1990s, their profile has significantly increased in recent years. Initially only providing payment processing, fintech companies soon expanded to offer other financial services like lending, insurance, and even asset management. Technology advances can be largely blamed for the growth and success of Fintech businesses. Fintech firms use cutting-edge tools and techniques to make banking easier, safer, and more widely accessible. Mobile applications and online platforms, for instance, have made it easier for customers to access and manage their financial accounts. Fintech firms have created a number of disruptive innovations for the banking sector. Peer-to-peer lending platforms, for instance, have freed lenders and borrowers from the restrictions of the banking system. Customers now have more payment options due to the growth of mobile payment apps and digital wallets.</span></span></p> Dato’ Dr. Lim Khong Soon Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 4 2 72 89 The Islamic Emirates of Afghanistan: A Welfare State? <p>The State of Afghanistan has undergone a major shift with the departure of Us-led forces and the formation of the Taliban government. Afghanistan has rarely been subjected to peaceful means of power transition. The newly formed state of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan is to face challenges to construct an Islamic state.&nbsp; Welfare states work for the stability and prosperity of their public. The concept of the welfare state started through Islam. The state formed by the Caliphs of Islam is an example of a welfare state.&nbsp;&nbsp; Islamic State is based on the concept of public welfare. The Taliban government needs to apply the principles of an Islamic state to develop a welfare state of the Islamic Emirates of Afghanistan. The government needs to resolve the inner tribal conflicts, and illiteracy issues and to enlighten a way to convert their trodden and disjoint state into a welfare one.</p> Javeria Tahir Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 4 2 90 100 POVERTY REDUCTION THROUGH VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION ;PAKISTAN AS CASE STUDY <p>There is an example in the Chinese language, don't give a man a fish, but teach him to catch fish. Poverty has various manifestations including lack of income and productive resources sufficient to ensure sustainable livelihood, hunger and malnutrition, ill-health, limited or lack of access to education and other basic services, increased morbidity and mortality form, illness, homelessness and inadequate, unsafe and degraded environment, as well as social discrimination and exclusion. Vocational and technical education has frequently been described as a form of education whose purpose is to prepare person(s) for employment in an occupation or group of occupations. The development of skills through vocational and technical education is now one of the most often-cited priorities by ministers of education in both developing and developed countries. The study is useful for policy makers, professionals, researchers and practitioners. To fill employment gaps and encourage economic recovery and even national security, governments have high expectations for technical and vocational education and training (TVET).</p> MAZAHIR ABBAS Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 4 2 101 112 The Value of Digital Currency in The Banking Sector for Malaysian Bank Growth <p style="line-height: 150%; margin-bottom: 0.28cm;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Cryptography is used to protect financial transactions, confirm their authenticity, and control the issuance of new currency in digital money, also known as cryptocurrency. It can be exchanged for fiat currencies like the dollar or the euro and is not backed by any government. It can be used to make online purchases. To succeed, Malaysian banks must accept digital money so they can reach more people and provide services to more customers. Additionally, digital currency might enable banks to save time and money. Financial institutions that don't accept digital currency run the risk of falling behind the competition as it grows in popularity. As was previously stated, digital money is a completely digital form of cryptographic currency. It is accepted as payment for goods and services on the Internet and can be exchanged for other currencies, but it is not backed by any government or central bank.</span></span></p> Dato’ Seri Dr. Ong Ming Hui Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 4 2 113 122 A Review of History and Implementation of Working Women Rights in Pakistan: A Perspective of Employment Laws <p>In contemporary world, the phenomena of gender inclusivity and diversity has encouraged many women to stay determined against the so-called&nbsp;<em>glass</em>&nbsp;<em>ceiling, </em>paving ways for women to avoid inequality pertaining to the workplace. To address the said phenomena, the present review sought to review and analyze the working women rights and harassment at work place through studying the existing scholarly work produced in the last decade related to the said areas. Suggestions indicated that Pakistan is still facing gender inequality in terms of women unequal rights in workplace. The major hinderances as stated in the literature being cultural and social factors, gender stereotypes and gender biasness. To this end, the present review proposed that gender-sensitive training programs need to be introduced to tackle gender inequalities via tailoring and transforming rigid gender-based social and cultural constructs. Further, awareness to Women rights should be provided to working women with facilitation to gain familiarity with legislative laws.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <em>Keywords: </em>working women<em>, </em>women rights, gender inequality, harassment at workplace, legislative laws.</p> Samreen Fazal Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 4 2 123 129 INNOVATION AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY STRATEGIES: CAUSES AND REPERCUSSIONS FOR FIRMS <p class="western" style="line-height: 150%; margin-bottom: 0.28cm;" lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">According to patent law, the business that made a specific innovation or discovery has the sole right to produce and market that innovation or discovery for a specific amount of time. This essay will look at how these regulations affect business competitiveness and budgets for research and development. The study then talks about IP-based competition. Competitors infringing on intellectual property is a serious issue in today's globalised economy. The study examines how companies might use legal tools, like litigation and licencing agreements, to safeguard their intellectual property and keep a competitive edge. Finally, the study looks into how IP strategies have sparked novel methods of product development. Businesses must constantly create new products to meet customer needs in today's cutthroat market while still safeguarding their confidential information. This paper's goal is to present a comprehensive overview of the ways that intellectual property strategies affect how innovatively businesses think up new products and services. Patent laws are advantageous because they support innovation by giving inventors financial rewards and safeguarding their intellectual property. This promotes private businesses to spend money on R&amp;D, which ultimately helps society as a whole. Businesses can use the cash they receive from patent licencing fees to fund additional R&amp;D initiatives. However, the laws governing patents may have unintended detrimental effects on inventiveness. The potential for patents to restrict people's ability to benefit from significant technological and creative advancements is a significant problem. Some large firms use patents as entry barriers to keep new, smaller competitors from entering the market and having an equal chance of success. The rate at which new technologies are created could slow as a result.</span></span></p> Datuk Dr. Chong Han Kwang Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 4 2 130 143 Interviews as Stylistic and Rhetorical Techniques in Dostoyevsky’s Crime and Punishment <p>The selected interviews are a stylistic and rhetorical technique used in <em>Crime and Punishment</em> by Fyodor Dostoevsky to analyze the themes of redemption, quilt, and rehabilitation. Dostoevsky’s characters, through interviews, share their feelings and thoughts about their past life experiences and question the consequences of their deeds. The protagonist is encouraged to admit his wrongdoings using various rhetorical and stylistic techniques in the chosen interviews. For instance, the selected interview between Sonya and Raskolnikov, the protagonist, can be observed as a stylistic and rhetorical technique in the selected text. Dostoevsky uses interviews as a narrative to help his characters, especially the criminals, feel secure confessing and moving beyond their bad decisions.&nbsp; In this regard, the insight has been borrowed from Roman Jakobson’s theory as his work contributes a lot in terms of evolutions of stylistics. Therefore, this study attempts to dissect the connection between the message and its syntax. Semantics clarifies that the reader may understand the author's intended and connotative meanings. The research enlightens the reader on the value of language by showing how it may inspire even criminals to make typical confessions of guilt.</p> Kamran Farooqi Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 4 2 144 157 Exploring the strategies used by political parties to build political narratives in Pakistani public: A case study of elections <p class="western" style="line-height: 200%; text-indent: 1cm; margin-bottom: 0.28cm;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Social media has become the most potential and influential source of narrative building and agenda setting among people as an effective tool for political communication today. The multidimensional interaction between politicians and publics have intensified the effects of social media and inculcation of popular political ideas among voters. The proposed study aim to explore consumption patterns of social media (Twitter and Facebook) among political parties and journalists who build narratives and make popular opinion in public. Drawing theoretical foundation from Agenda Setting theory the study will use qualitative research design for data collection. The sample for proposed study will be the social media managers of popular political parties of Pakistan and most followed journalists. The interviews with open ended questions will be used as research method to collect responses from the selected sample. The collected data will be interpreted and analysed in the light of qualitative data analysis techniques.</span></span></p> Waqas Awan Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 4 2 158 190 Exploring Religious Scholars Perspectives on Child Physical Abuse: A Case Study of District Malakand <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Child physical abuse is a significant global concern, and its prevalence varies across cultures and societies. This case study focuses on District Malakand, exploring the perspectives of religious scholars on child physical abuse. The study is qualitative in nature, utilizing purposive sampling to select 10 religious scholars as respondents. Islamic teachings emphasize the protection and welfare of children, promoting kindness and mercy. While Islam does not support physical punishment, some mild forms of discipline are allowed under specific circumstances. The findings reveal that religious scholars and teachers are not in favor of physical abuse due to its negative psychosocial impacts on the child's development. The study sheds light on the need to eradicate physical abuse from educational institutions and homes to create a nurturing environment for children in accordance with Islamic teachings.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Physical Abuse, Child, Islamic, Malakand, Punishment</p> Irfan Ullah Sher Shah Hamid Alam Sibgaht Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) 2023-08-09 2023-08-09 4 2 191 200 The Production Analysis of Chickpea: A Case Study of District Layyah <p>The current review has been intended to decide the productivity of chickpea cultivators, to appraise the consequence of diverse elements on creation of chickpea and to recognize the example and limitations associated with its showcasing. Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum) is a significant vegetable harvest. It has high dietary worth; particularly high items in protein (22-24%) which are adequate to adjust the everyday person's eating routine. This study depends on essential information. Tehsil Chobara of locale Layyah is chosen as test region. For assessment of data, money related evaluation gauges, for instance, net return and benefit cost extent are use, and a Cobb-Douglas type creation capacity in the log structure is apply to perceive the factors impacting the yield of chickpea. The drawing in estimations is used to survey the monetary profile of the chickpea cultivators. The chow test is furthermore use to conclude the security of the backslide model. R square is 0.526 in the backslide model surveyed for chickpea created in watered district. For this situation F esteem is 9.685. This suggests that the creation capability utilized for watered chickpea in the current review is by and large measurably huge. In the assessed relapse model for chickpea developed in downpour took care of region, R2 0.601 with F esteem 17.697 shows the genuinely meaning of creation capability utilized for the downpour took care of chickpea. Seed rate highest affects the yield of chickpea among any remaining data sources remembered for creation examination. The advantage cost proportion of 3.12 and 3.07 for the chickpea developed in the watered and downpour took care of regions separately proposes that chickpea development is the beneficial in the review region.</p> Naveed Alam Ahmed Raza Aisha Tahir Abdus Samie Copyright (c) 2023 Pakistan Review of Social Sciences (PRSS) 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 4 2 201 209