Graduate Journal of Pakistan Review (GJPR) <p>This journal is setup to promote research activities in Pakistan by providing a publication platform to the university students and junior scholars so that they can publish their work. This will help in creating a research-friendly environment in Pakistani academia.</p> Pakistan Review Research & Publications en-US Graduate Journal of Pakistan Review (GJPR) The Implications of Climate Change for States and Corporations <p>This research paper will discuss that what are the implications of climate change for states and corporations? Than further I have discusses in what ways climate change has affected the human life at one place it has violated the rights of human and at the same time humans has not taken it as their responsibility to protect it, but they have either destroyed the climate change whether they are the industrialists or a common man. After that I have seen that this issue is politicized and some big powers really don’t want to solve to this issue because of their interests. Since, it is crystal clear that the temperature is rising time to time because of large number of greenhouse carbon emission. And states are involved in protecting the big emitters. This proposal is significant for the study of state relations with industries and big corporations, in term of global climate change. While writing this proposal I have in mind that we are living in an age where Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization are the key influential factors of the global politics. It could become an economic and environmental security issue for all states. I have used critical theory to analyze the inputs which were qualitative type of data. Beyond that I will take some of the international and regional countries as examples and see their roles in effecting or protecting the climate. The issue is well addressed before but many states are not interested to think on it out of short term interests. What I have found among the many issues is that there is always understanding between the state and the industries that emit greenhouse carbon in developed and developing countries which is difficult to be solved because they have state as their protectors so there is a big need of public action to tackle the issue. For, at least they can avoid their part of greenhouse carbon emission. The window of room to prevent climate change dangers is closing very fast and in some states it is alarming.</p> Zakir Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 Zakir Hussain 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 1 1 76 84 Work Place Aggression: Role of Leadership in Aggression <p>The main purpose of this Research paper is to find and locate the role of Leadership in workplace aggression. I have gone through many of the Literature of Workplace Aggression to find out the behavior of leaders at the workplace aggression takes place. The workplace aggression is the neglected part of any organization to achieve their goals. The managers are not interested in to find out the routes of aggression in the employees to better their performance and prove adequate resources to the employees to make them stress free and concentrate on their job.</p> <p>The study used survey based questionnaire for primary data gathering. A sample size of 20 Customer Services Representatives working in Islamabad and Rawalpindi collected to find out the differences. I researched about some points that what leaders do during the aggression and eventually overcome the loss which is faced by the Organization.</p> <p>The convenience sampling technique was used to generate the data from the employees. This technique is easy and comfortable to use without puzzling the victim.</p> <p>In conclusion I am able to analysis that what Leaders can play role in the aggression and how they focus about the aggression happening in their organization. Either instead of resolving employees’ problems the Leadership thinks that the problem should be dealt by the employees themselves or they have time to resolve each employee’s issues personally and officially.</p> Mujeeb Rehman Copyright (c) 2021 Mujeeb Rehman 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 1 1 6 16 Child Behavioural Development via Toys <p>TV, play and toys influence child’s early age development. Child associates themselves to things and it later on portrays their development. Parents play a great influence in this regard; they have certain factors in their minds while purchasing a toy for their child and they choose it accordingly this research is all about studying those factors which effects toy purchasing decisions. <br />The objective of this study is to identify the factors that effects parents mind while toy purchasing decision for their child.<br />Significance: The significance of this study is based on investigating the factors of parental toy decision and determining the relative importance of selected toys on child development. Nature of research is quantitative and is collected through survey based on a questionnaire distributed among parents of toddlers sample size is approximately 30 and collected by using random sampling technique. Data is analyzed by using SPSS software. The results shows that many of parents prefer buying toys that can be source of learning few parents just thought of buying it as a fun factor and many parents were concerned about gender while purchasing a toy. Many parents are concerned about type of toys and those factors affect them while making a decision as it influence in child development. Limitation of this research is that it is only limited to toddler parents and data is only collected from Islamabad. Future research can include children’s above 4yrs and can also focus on relationship between child and toys like how certain toys influence child development.</p> Sara Sumbal Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2021 Sara Sumbal Siddiqui 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 1 1 17 28 Unemployment, Crime & inflation in Pakistan: Socio-economic determinants of crime <p>Crimes have forever infested each society in human history. The history of crime is as recent as the history of grouping. The primary crime was committed by an adult male, the primary son of Adam and Eve, once he died his brother Abel out of jealousy. Crime may be a major supply of insecurity and discomfort in each society. This research paper is formulated to find a link between crime and various economic factors like unemployment and inflation in the context of Pakistan. This research study is based on a quantitative research method. Primary research methods were used to conduct this research. I aimed to address a theoretical research problem. Multiple-choice questions were designed, and the survey was conducted online. Almost 53 samples were taken. Data was analyzed in a statistically valid way by using SPSS. Since the analysis studies have indicated that unemployment causes an explicit proportion of crime. There is a converse connection between inflation and joblessness. In this research, study results show that there is a positive relationship between unemployment and crime. As unemployment increases the crime rate in that country also increases, and then the matter of unemployment has to be resolved. The government includes a vital role in dominant the speed of unemployment among the youth. Trained young men ought to be actively engaged in revenue-generating activities that can occupy them and, at an equivalent time, give a supply of financial gain.</p> Anum Rafique Copyright (c) 2021 Anum Rafique 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 1 1 29 39 Impact of Violent Games on Mental Health <p>In this world of revolution of technology people have access to every access of entertainment and information. Bygone computers were only source of working on station or laptop but nowadays smart cellphones are full of specs for working for your office, college or any particular task but when it comes to entertainment smart phones nowhere less than anything. Cellphones have almost every source of entertainment which is from social media to YouTube or any other site of any specific entertainment. Smart phones offer games on Ios and Android worldwide with different features.</p> <p>Cross-sectional look into analyzing the connection between violent computer games and animosity fall into two unmistakable classifications: correlational and trial. The run of the mill correlational investigation around there asks members to initially portray their computer game playing propensities and afterward self-report emotions or practices identified with hostility and viciousness. For instance, Anderson and Dill (2000) found that inclination for violent computer games was identified with self-revealed forceful wrongdoing. Most of studies utilizing a cross-sectional correlational structure have discovered that people who play or favor violent computer games will in general express unfriendly or forceful propensities (for audits see Anderson and Bushman, 2001; Anderson, et al., 2010; Ferguson, 2007; Sherry, 2001). Such discoveries propose a connection between violent computer games and hostility yet give no reasonable sign of the causal bearing of this connection.</p> Sajeel Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 Sajeel Ahmed 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 1 1 40 47 Oil price war during covid-19 and its impact on Pakistan <p class="western" style="margin-left: 0in; margin-bottom: 0.11in; line-height: 150%; orphans: 2; widows: 2;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><em>This article gives view point on the oil war prices between countries in the time of covid-19. It also provides brief history and the role of OPEC and non OPEC countries to detect the oil prices. The objective of this study to analyze the positions of the countries in this war, impacts on countries economy, as well as on Pakistan’s economy. The discourse analysis is used for the data analysis. For the brief understanding of the issue, theoretical work also been done. Furthermore, comprehensive discussion has been extracted after analyzing data at the end of the paper.</em></span></span></span></span></p> Umar Ali Abbasi Copyright (c) 2021 Umar Ali Abbasi 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 1 1 48 58 Terrorism in Pakistan <p>Research on terrorism has long been criticized for its inability to overcome enduring methodological issues. These include an overreliance on secondary sources and the associated literature review methodology, a scarcity of statistical analyses, a tendency for authors to work alone rather than collaborate with colleagues, and the large number of one-time contributors to the field. However, the reviews that have brought these issues to light describe the field as it developed until 2007. This article investigates to what extent these issues have endured in the 2007–2016 period by constructing a database on all of the articles published in nine leading journals on terrorism (N&nbsp;=&nbsp;3442). The results show that the use of primary data has increased considerably and is continuing to do so. Scholars have also begun to adapt a wider variety of data-gathering techniques, greatly diminishing the overreliance on literature reviews that was noted from the 1980s through to the early 2000s. These positive changes should not obscure enduring issues. Despite improvements, most scholars continue to work alone and most authors are one-time contributors. Overall, however, the field of terrorism studies appears to have made considerable steps towards addressing long-standing issues.</p> saliha zainab Copyright (c) 2021 saliha zainab 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 1 1 59 75 Learning to Live with the Bomb <p>-</p> Hussain Qureshi Copyright (c) 2021 Hussain Qureshi 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 1 1 1 3 Political Islam in Central Asia (The Challenge of Hizb ut-Tahrir) Sadia Atta Copyright (c) 2021 Sadia Atta 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 1 1 4 5