Graduate Journal of Pakistan Review (GJPR) <p>This journal is setup to promote research activities in Pakistan by providing a publication platform to the university students and junior scholars so that they can publish their work. This will help in creating a research-friendly environment in Pakistani academia.</p> Pakistan Review Research & Publications en-US Graduate Journal of Pakistan Review (GJPR) The Russian-Ukraine War reverberating across World Regions <p>The following article discusses the world-wide effects of the ongoing war between Russia and Ukraine and the amount of damage it has done, creating crisis in terms of hike in oil and gas prices, shortage of food items and overall expensiveness. It also discusses the long-term effects if the war continues as it has divided the world into two groups i.e. one supporting Russia and the other supporting Ukraine. This situation has affected poor countries who had to have neutral stance on the situation but it still costed them. The opinions and stances behind the war of both the countries and other countries of the world have been discussed in detail and the events that led to invasion have been highlighted. The steps taken by West to stop Russia and its response to all those steps have also been noted down. After highlighting the stances of both the sides and discussing what happened and what should not have happened. The researcher provides conclusions at the end of the article.</p> Muhammad Ali Malik Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Ali Malik 2024-03-04 2024-03-04 4 1 35 46 Afforestation and Rural development: A Socio-economic Impact and Environmental Implication <p>Modernization a product of modernity has been responsible for today’s world development characterised by industrialization, advancement in information technology and urbanization. This process of development is contributing to global warming and climate change, phenomena every society on the surface of the earth now wrestles with. It is a challenge prompted by human indulgence with the natural environment in the bid of creating a modern society. Deforestation and desertification are integral of these challenging problem.</p> <p>This paper will dissect the exigency of these problems particularly in the rural area which according to the functional school of thought is the peripheral of the urban core. It aimed at creating orientation and campaign for afforestation and against deforestation, one of the major causes of desertification of the rural area.</p> <p>Thus, the paper will equally expound imperative necessity on how to contribute to rural development through the creation of ‘mini jungle’ inclusive of recreational spots and creation of a buffer green zone. Such spots are either inadequate or not available in rural area, which thus indicates the negligence of these areas by the government. This paper will therefore draw public attention for the demand of such spots and the extent to which its deficiency hampers psychological and physical recreation. This paper believes that revenue from such recreational spots can in fact be instrumental in the tree plantation process geared at combating the menace of deforestation and desertification and ultimately playing a role in reducing the heat in our atmosphere.</p> Humayun Shuja Copyright (c) 2024 Humayun Shuja 2024-03-04 2024-03-04 4 1 28 34 Book Review: Has China Won The Chinese Challenge to American Primacy <p>Kishore Mahbubani's "The Chinese Challenge to American Primacy" (2020). The book provides an insightful examination of China's ascent and its consequences for the international system. Kishore Mahbubani questions Western viewpoints, calling for a more complex comprehension of China's rise and supporting a cooperative strategy for the U.S.-China relationship. The book examines the historical development of China, highlighting the necessity for the West—especially the United States—to adjust to a shifting geopolitical environment. The book significantly adds to the conversation on international relations and the changing dynamics between major global powers because of Mahbubani's appeal for pragmatic engagement, consideration of China's legitimate interests, and a reevaluation of global governance.</p> Syed Shah Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Syed Shah Hussain 2024-03-04 2024-03-04 4 1 1 2 The History of Aims of Education in Pakistan <p>The research article explains the meaning, nature and importance of aims of education in Pakistan. Aims of education are crucial for keeping the educational activity on the right track. Aims of education do not allow the educational process to become haphazard, vague and confused. Aims of education are discussed keeping in view the determining factors, different eras (time periods) and educational needs of 21<sup>st</sup> century. Islam is a very dynamic religion and it expects people to be active and dynamic in the social order so aims of education according to Islam are also discussed. Islamic Republic of Pakistan is based on Islamic ideology and its aims of education should reflect the Islamic ideology. History of Aims of education mentioned in the educational policies of Pakistan are further analyzed and it is inferred that more or less, same aims of education are discussed in them but the educational system failed to fully achieve the desired aims mainly due to failure in accomplishing major changes (implementation) required in educational system in order to achieve those aims and political instability. It is concluded that aims of education are different for every society which means that aims of education should be formulated according to the ideological needs of a Pakistan and should be fully implemented so that those societal needs can be fulfilled and the country can prosper.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Aims of education, educational needs of 21<sup>st</sup> century, Islamic ideology, Pakistan’s aims of education</p> Maham Farooq Copyright (c) 2024 Maham Farooq 2024-03-04 2024-03-04 4 1 3 13 The implications of cyber threats on state sovereignty, national security, and international cooperation, focusing on recent cyber incidents <p>The increasing interconnection of today's world has led to a significant increase in cyber challenges, posing serious challenges to the established framework of international relations. The goal of this research article is to perform a thorough examination of the complex aspects of cyber security threats and their significant effects on international relation&nbsp;dynamics, state sovereignty, and global stability. The study attempts to provide nuanced insights into the changing environment of cyber threats through a thorough analysis of current cyber occurrences and their worldwide implications. Furthermore, it emphasizes the necessity of increased international cooperation in order to successfully tackle these issues, acknowledging the transnational character of cyber threats that transcend conventional borders. The study aims to provide insightful viewpoints for practitioners, academics, and policymakers in developing more resilient strategies for the dynamic area of international relations as the globe navigates this complex junction of technology and geopolitics.</p> Syed Shah Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Syed Shah Hussain 2024-03-04 2024-03-04 4 1 14 27